Julius Barnathan (1927-1997), not deaf, was a ABC TV executive during the
late seventies. He befriended Dr. Malcolm Norwood, a deaf executive with the
Department of Education, overseeing the captioning needs of the deaf. Norwood
constantly lobbied Barnathan, often getting into heavy drinking sessions
with him at fancy Manhattan bars. Barnathan had the final word on allowing
captions on his ABC network but for some reason he was resistant. Barnathan
eventually agreed to captions with a hearty handshake – thus paving the way for captions to appear on other TV networks over the years.